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bullet AGRICULTURE

550.  Ahmad, Nisar and Tila Muhammad. Fertilizer, Plant Nutrient Management and Self-reliance in Agriculture. The Pakistan Development Review, 1998. 37:4 Part II, 217-233 p.

bulletThe importance of agriculture in the economy of Pakistan is well established. Agricultural plays an important role both directly and indirectly in generating economic activity, growth and development. Agriculture has strong backward and forward linkages and is vital to the food security of the country. Fertilizers have played an important role in Pakistan agriculture particularly in meeting the growing demand for food grains, fiber, fuel and fodder. Fertilizer consumption has increased during the last four decades to 2.6 million tones by 1997-98. The use level is, however, not only sub optimal but also imbalanced. Better plant nutrient management is, therefore, necessary for achieving self reliance in agriculture. 

551. Asif Sarawar and Qureshi, Asad Sarwar. Genetic Response of Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutm L.) to various irrigation regimes. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 1999. 15(1) 17-20 p.

bulletA study pertaining to the effect of different irrigation levels on the yield of three strains of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars B496, B622 and B630 was conducted at the Experimental Farm of the Directorate of Crop Production and Water Management, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Cotton was planted in RCB (Factorial) design with four repeats. The vegetative, flowering and boll formation growth stages of cotton were considered as 60, 70 and 50 days respectively. The experiment consisted of six irrigation treatments with maximum of two irrigation's during vegetative, three during flowering and one during boll formation stage. The highest yield of seed cotton was found in six irrigation treatments as 2279 kg/ha for B496, 2297 kg/ha for B622, and 2141 kg/ha for B630. Test of difference between treatments was done by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The yield was found to be reduced significantly if water is not sufficiently available during flowering and boll formation stages. However, excessive application of water during vegetative and flowering stages did not increase the yield significantly. Cotton yield was influenced significantly by irrigation levels whereas varieties were not influenced significantly. Interaction between cultivars and irrigation levels was also found to be non-significant. Water Use Efficiency (WUE) was found to be the highest in one irrigation treatment and was the lowest in five irrigation treatments. The yield Y (kg/ha)-Water X (mm) relationship was found as Y=2.08X + 757.75, Y=21.8X + 721.3 and Y= 1.64X + 947.80 for B496, B622, and B630 respectively. The study suggested that water stress during the flowering and boll formation stages must be avoided to get good yields.

552. Khan, Akhtar Nawaz; Qureshi; R.H. and N. Ahmad; Performance of Cotton Cultivars as Affected by Types of Salinity I Growth and Yield. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture. 1998. 14(1) 67-71 p.  

bulletEffect of two concentrations (150 and 250 me 1-1) of NaCl: CaCl2 salts of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3, ratios and salt mixture of Na2So4: NaCl:Ca Cl2: MgCl2 ratio of 10:5:4:1 and NaCl alone on equivalent basis on the fresh shoot and root yields of four cotton cultivars (NIAB 78, MNH 93, D9 and Ravi) were studied in plastic tubs containing nutrient solution. As expected, NaCl salinity strongly inhibited the shoot growth. This inhibition was partly overcome by adding Ca2+ in the root medium. It is noted that Na+ : Ca2+ ratio of 3:1 has ameliorative effect due to low toxicity of low concentration of Ca2+ on shoot and root growth. While increases in the proportion of Ca2+ i.e. NaCl: CaCl2 ratios of 1:1 and 1:3 had no further ameliorative effect on shot growth but decreased the shoot growth at high salinity. Response of cultivars varied with addition of Ca2+ to growth medium. NIAB 78 the tolerant cultivar improved its adaptive mechanism (s) for salt tolerance by addition of Ca2+ to growth medium than relatively sensitive cultivars.

553. Khan, Akhtar Nawaz; Qureshi, R.H. and N. Ahmad; Performance of Cotton Cultivars as Affected by Types of Salinity II, Ionic Composition. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture. 1998. 14(1) 73-77 p.

bulletEffect of types of salinity with relation to ions was studied on four cotton cultivars (NIAB 78, MNH 93, D9 and Ravi) in nutrient solution. The growth medium was salinized with different salts of NaCl : NaCl2 ratios of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 and salt mixture of Na2So4 : NaCl : CaCl2 : MgCl2 ratio of 10:5:4:1 and NaCl alone on equivalent basis. It was noted that NIAB 78 had lowest shoot Na+ concentration as compared with other cultivars, especially in treatment of NaCl alone and various salt mixtures. At low salinity these differences were statistically significant in treatments with high Na+ : Ca2+ ratio. Cumulative mean of cultivars root showed that NIAB 78 the tolerant one retained more Na+ concentrations than MNH 93, D 9 and Ravi the relatively sensitive ones. To retain greater proportion of Na + in roots by tolerant NIAB 78 than sensitive ones which could be one of the mechanism in this case for high salt tolerance.

554. Ministry of Food Agriculture and Livestock. Crops Area Production by District 1995-96 to 1997-98. 1999. 213 p.

bulletTo define the major cropping patterns of Pakistan, the district-wise crop data of Pakistan were used. The major crops were grouped into Kharif and Rabi seasons. The major Rabi crops considered were wheat, chickpea and rapseed. Kharif crops included for the analysis were rice, cotton, sugarcane, maize, sorghum, millets and groundnut. The district-wise area under each crop was used. The area of any crop less than 1000 hectare was not included. To define the various cropping zones, the major Rabi and Kharif crops (with maximum area coverage) were used. The predominant cropping patterns identified were rice-wheat, cotton-wheat, coarse grain-wheat, sugarcane-wheat and maize-wheat.

555. Mohammad Abdul Rauf; Mohammad Zubair; Khan, Jehangir and Zafar Ali. Effect of Different Levels of N.P.K. on the Yield and Growth of Strawberry Cv. 'Gorella'. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture. 1998. 14(1) 27-28 p.

bulletThe trail was conducted to investigate an optimum level of N.P.K. for strawberry Cv. 'Gorella' grown in containers. Four levels of N.P.K. i.e. 0,2,4 and 6 g/plant were studied. The data showed that 4 g of N.P.K./plant gave maximum number of flowers (29) per plant, maximum number of fruits/plant (19) and maximum number of runners/plant (1.5) by 2 g N.P.K/Plant and 6 g N.P.K/plant. However larger size fruits were observed in plants which received N.P.K at the rate of 6 g/plant.  

556. Prasad, Rajendra; Singh, D.K; Singh, R.K: and Rani, Archana, Ammonia Volatilization Loss in Rice-Wheat Cropping System and Ways to Minimize it. Fertilizer News, 1999. Vol.44(10) 53-56 p.

bulletAmmonia volatilization is an important nitrogen loss mechanism for the fertilizer nitrogen applied to farm fields (1) Sudhakara and Prasad (9) reported a loss of 8.37% of applied nitrogen by ammonia volatilization from a rice field when the rice crop was at seedling stage i.e., soon after transplanting. Sarkar et al. (8) reported a loss of 15-20% applied nitrogen when urea was broadcast in a wheat field. Thus in rice-wheat cropping system about 10 to 20% of applied fertilizer N is lost when urea is broadcast. Since a number of factors such as soil moisture content, temperature, wind velocity etc. affect ammonia volatilization losses under field conditions, the present laboratory study was planned to study the effect of rates and methods of urea application on ammonia volatilization losses under simulated field conditions for rice and wheat fields.

557. Z, Shah. Enhancing Efficiency of N Fertilizer through Nitrapyrin Vs Split Application on Wheat Crop. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 1998. 14(2) 147-152 p.

bulletThe effects of nitrification inhibitor and the split application of fertilizer N on the yield and N content of wheat were compared at the farmers' field in North West Frontier Province, Pakistan. Three levels of N viz. 40, 80, and 120 kg N ha-1 were applied to soil either as full dose at sowing or in two equal split-half at sowing and half with second irrigation. Nitrapyrin was applied to those treatments only receiving N as full dose at sowing. A control treatment receiving no N was also included. The grain yield and shoot biomass of wheat were greater in the inhibitor than in the split treatment, the differences however varying with the level of N addition. The differences in yields between the inhibitor and split treatments decreased with increasing N rates. The N concentration, total N uptake, and recovery of applied N by wheat plants were significantly greater in the inhibitor than in the split treatments at all levels of N. It was, however, observed that the differences in N content of wheat between the inhibitor and split treatments decreased with increasing level of N application. These results indicated that the inhibitor treatment was relatively better than the split application of N fertilizer in increasing the yield and N content of wheat.

bulletSOIL FERTILITY/FERTILIZER USE EFFICIENCY

558. Biswas, B.C and Das, Soumitradas; Role of Fertilizer in Doubling Oilseed Productivity in India. Fertilizer News, 1999. Vol.44(10) 23-26 p.

bulletRole of fertilizer in improving foodgrains production is well documented. Oilseeds, an energy rich group of crops, are mainly grown in energy starved rainfed conditions. Presently, oilseed crops grown in 26 million hectares to produced about 25 million tones of oilseeds removed nearly 3 million tones of major nutrients (NPK) alongwith sizable amount of secondary (S etc.) and micronutrients (Zn, B, Mo etc.). Very little amount of fertilizer nutrient is added in oilseed crops against a colossal removal of 3 million tones per annum. This is a serious soil health hazarad, which needs urgent attention of all concerned. The paper deals with the role that fertilizer nutrient can play in doubling the oilseeds productivity in the country.

559. Biswas, B.C; Das, Soumitra and Sharma, S.H.K; Fertilizer Use in Non-traditional Sector for Food Security and Balanced Diet. Fertilizer News, 1999. Vol.44 (12) 107-121p.

bulletSectors like inland fish culture, sericulture, horticultural crops, medicinal and aromatic plants, rainfed farming, forage and fodder crops etc. can be considered as non-traditional sector with respect to fertilizer use due to the very low fertilizer use in these sectors. Achieving the food security and balanced diet targets for the ever-growing population needs an increased production from all the sectors. Increasing the production in turn requires that all these sectors be supplied with sufficient quantities of nutrients from all the possible sources. The availability of organic manures, biofertilizers etc. being limited, there is a great scope for increasing the fertilizer use in these sectors. This paper deals with the potential of fertilizer use in the sector and the role of plant nutrients in improving productivity and product quality. The importance of the sector in food security and balanced diet has also been highlighted. It also focuses on the constraints and their remedies to increase the fertilizer use and productivity.

563. British Sulphur. Fertilizers for their Future, A major Fertility Initiative in China. Fertilizer International, 1999. (369) 31-32 p.

bulletControlled-release fertilizers offer a more predictable supply of nutrition. However, they continue to carry a significant price premium in comparison with conventional fertilizers. Throughout the world, the quest is on to make controlled-release fertilizers a more affordable source of N. This article, by Xu Xiucheng, Li Dipping, Wang Haobin and Fan Xiushan, of Zhengzhou University of Technology, examines recent advance in China.

564. Chauhan, R.P.S; Singh, B. B. Singh, R.K. and Singh, V.P. Strategic Nutrient Management for Sustained Rice Production in Sodic Soil. Fertilizer News, 1999. Vol.44(8) 13-26 p.

bulletRice is the most suitable crop for sodic (alkali) soil for its being fairly tolerant to sodicity and ameliorative effect on soil. On large areas of moderate sodic soil (pH<9.5) rice mono-cropping with no amendment and its cultivation after partial reclamation of barren zodiac lands (pH>9.5) during wet part of the year is an usual practice. But the productivity and production of rice is very poor due to the initial deficiency of nutrients (Ca, N, Zn) and tremendous loss or fixation of applied nutrients. Strategic nutrient management is, therefore, an integral part of reclamation and economic utilization of sodic soil. This paper deals with the characteristics and nutrient status of typical sodic soil of Indogangetic alluvial plains and different nutrient management options including integrated nutrient management and use of coated urea materials for better and sustained production of rice in sodic soils. The future research needs on the subject have been also dealt with.

565. Ghulam Hussain; Amanullah; Gul Hassan and Abdur Rashid. Response of Sunflower Cultivars to Different Nitrogen Levels under D.I. Khan Conditions. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 1998. 14(5) 411-415 p.  

bulletThe experiments were conducted at ARI, D.I. Khan during Fall 1994-95 and 1995-96, in order to figure out the most suitable dose of Nitrogen fertilizer for sunflower cultivars. The experiments consisted of two cultivars viz., SF-187 (hybrid) and SMT (open pollinated variety) assigned to the main plots and four nitrogen levels kept into sub plots. The experiments were laid out in triplicated split plot in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The basal dose of the phosphorus and potash was applied at 50 kg ha-1 each. The data were recorded on seed yield (kg ha-1), days to flower initiation, completion and maturity and the head size (cm). For seed yield, the data exhibited that regardless of the N level, the cultivars SF-187 and SMT produced equal yields. Similarly, the main effects for the N levels were found statistically significant during the two years of study. During Fall 1994-95, the highest yield (1533 kg ha-1) was produced by the fertilizer application at 125 kg ha-1. It was, however, statistically at par with all other fertilizer treatments except the un-fertilized check. Similar trend was recorded during the succeeding year of study. Thus, it is suggested that in order to realize better yields of sunflower it may be fertilized with 125 kg ha-1 alongwith a recommended dose of phosphorus and potash.

566. Kakar, Abdullah Khan; Sherin Khan and Taran, S. Asmatullah. Effect of Time and Different Methods of Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on Maize (Zea Mays L.) Crop at Quetta. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 1999. 15 (2) 88-91 p.

bulletInvestigation on the effect of methods of fertilizer application (broadcast, side placement, inter row placement deep placement and liquid application) at different time period (seeding stage, four leaves stage and eight leaves stage) on maize (Zea mays L.) was carried out at Agricultural Research Institute Sariab, Quetta; Balochistan during the crop season 1997. The experiment was laid out in RCB design with split plot arrangement, replicated four times on a plot size of 4.5 x 5.25 m area. Plant height and 1000-grain weight were significantly affected by fertilizer application at eight leaves stage followed by four leaves stage and seeding stage. Significant results were obtained with fertilizer application at four leaves stage with regard to the leaf area and grain yield. Deep placement method of fertilizer application had increased significantly the plant height, leaf area, 1000-grain weight and grain yield kg/ha. It is concluded that N use efficiency were increased at four leaves stage so we will recommend four leaves stage of maize for fertilizer application.

567. Khan, Shah Nazar; Said Rahman; Gulzar Ahmad; Umid Ali Buriro and Ghulam Hyder Jamro. Predicting Nitrogen Requirements of Sugarbeet Based on Different Levels of Irrigation. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 1998. 14 (4) 277-280 p.

bulletAn experiment regarding the effect of different doses of nitrogen (viz., 00.50,100,150 and 200 kg/h) under three intervals of irrigation i.e. 7, 14 and 21 days was conducted on sugarbeet varieties i.e. KaweTerma and KawePak 294 at Sugar Crops Research Institute Mardan. The object of this experiment was to asses the effect of different doses of N under various levels of irrigation on the yield and quality of sugarbeet. The results conclusively proved that nitrogen fertilizer significantly increased yield and yield contributing characters of sugarbeet. Conversely, high N dose had an adverse effect on the quality parameters that is pol% of beet, pol% of juice and purity percent. Therefore, it was concluded that 150 kg/ha N is the optimum and economical dose for achieving maximum beet and sugar yield. Many of the combined interactions displayed non-significant results. KaweTerma should be cultivated with 150 kg N/ha under irrigation intervals of 7 and 14 days.

568. Maqbool Akhtar; Malik, Haq Nawaz and Muhammad Aslam. Maize Growth and Yield as Affected by Various Nitrogen Level in Islamabad Capital Territory. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 1998. 14 (4) 339-344 p.

bulletAn experiment was conducted on farmer's field in the federal district of Islamabad during the years 1994 and 1995 to compare the effectiveness of various Nitrogen levels on the growth and productivity of maize. Maize crop was applied various N levels of (i) O N, (ii) 50 kg N ha-1, (iii) 100 kg N ha-1, and (iv) 150 kg N ha-1. Application of 100 kg N ha-1 produced significantly tallest plants at maturity, more number of ears per plant (1.4), maximum number of grains per ear (315.6) and maximum grain yield (4.93 t ha-1) compared with 0.78 ears per plant, 80.3 grains per ear and 1.25 t ha-1 average grain yield with no nitrogen application. Application of 100 kg N ha-1 increased number of ears per plant by 62.00%, number of grains per ear by 292.8%, and grain yield by 294.4% over control. Application of 100 kg N ha-1 proved to be the best dose to get maximum productivity of corn in Lapara soils of Islamabad capital territory.

569. Mohammad Zaman; Izharul Haq; Khattak, Sabir Gul and Bakht Jehan Phosphorus Requirement of Oil Seed Brassica (Brassica Compestris L.). Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 1998. 14(2) 143-146 p.

bulletAn experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan, to study the effect of different levels of phosphorus on the yield and yield components of oil seed brassica during 1992-93. Grain yield, biological yield and harvest index was significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the application of different levels of phosphorus. Phosphorus uptake at different stages of growth (i.e. flowering, pod initiation, pod filling and harvest stages were non significant. Application of 80-kg ha-1 phosphorus increased grain yield, biological yields and harvest index when compared with control and other treatment.

570. Muhammad Ishtiaq; Khattak, Fozia; Rahbar Alam and Izhar Ali. Effect of Different Doses of Nitrogen in Combination With a Constant Dose of Phosphorus of Ficus Macrophylla Cuttings. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 1998. 14 (3) 215-217 p.

bulletThe experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different doses of nitrogen with constant doses of phosphorus on rubber plant cuttings. The different fertilizer doses significantly affected the growth of the cuttings. Maximum number of branches (8), number of leaves (139), number of roots (22), root length (34.33) and root weight (2.63) were noted for the plants treated with 19 g N+16 g P. While maximum plant height (33), stem thickness (0.49) and stem weight (29.31 g) were recorded for plants treated with 28 g nitrogen combined with 16 g phosphorus.

571. Muhammad Sajid Muhammad Ishtiaq; Ghulam Qadir; Zahid Shah and Sher Muhammad. Effect of Different Levels of Nitrogen on the Growth of Money Plant (Epipremnum aureum) cuttings. Sarah Journal of Agriculture, 1999. 15 (2) 125-127 p.

bulletExperiment on the effect of different levels of nitrogen on the growth of money plant (Epipermnum aureum) cuttings, was initiated at Ornamental Nursery of Horticulture Department, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar during the year 1994. The cuttings were planted in earthen pot of size (12-16 cm) containing sand, silt and clay media in equal proportion. Urea was applied in two split doses as a source of nitrogen. The data recorded, revealed that treatments have significant effects on all the growth parameters. The maximum stem length (34.68 cm), stem thickness (2.20 cm), number of leaves (13.33), root length (21.30 cm), root volume (3.12 ml) were recorded. On the basis of the experiment conducted, application of 4 g of urea per pot increased the performance of money plant (E.aureum) upto maximum growth and hence recommended as the best dose for the money plant from cuttings.

572. Pasricha, N.S:and Brar, M.S: Role of Mineral Fertilizers to Increase Wheat Production. Fertilizer News, 1999. Vol.44 (10) 39-43 p.

bulletOut of cereals, wheat commands a very respectable position with respect to area, as well as productivity. It is mainly grown in Indo-Gangetic plains of the country. Although productivity of wheat greatly varies between different regions, it is highest in northern part of Indo-Gangetic plains (Punjab) and lowest in eastern part (Bihar). There is a lot of gap between average wheat production in different regions and the yields of experimental trials conducted either at farmers' fields or at research stations. Simply by filling these gaps with the use of enhanced and balanced fertilization wheat production can be increased to the extent of 11.0 million tones annually. The results of the Maximum Yield Research Trials indicated that Punjab and Haryana alone have the ability to produce 10 million tones more wheat with higher and balanced use of fertilizers, green manuring and optimum plant population. The results of permanent research trial conducted at Punjab Agricultural University indicated that even with the use of all other factors such as high yielding varieties, irrigation facilities, control of insect pest and disease, the wheat productivity could have remained at the level of 1.0 tonne per hectare. However, with the use of fertilizers as a single factor, the productivity has increased to nearly 5 tonne per hectare. The paper focuses on the importance of mineral fertilizer in increasing the wheat production.

574. Vats, M.R. and Sehgal, D.K. Fertilizer Application for Sustainable Yield in Long Term Experiments. Fertilizer News, 1999. Vol.44 (8) 43-46 p.

bulletBalanced fertilization of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium has shown to maintain the yield stability of crops. At a number of locations the results from long term fertilizer experiments have shown that for most of the crops taken in cereals based cropping systems the yields obtained at one and a half times the optimum rates of fertilizer application were significantly higher than those under optimum (100 percent NPK-soil test based) levels. The yield gaps were observed to be quite large necessitating a fresh look at fertilizer recommendations to crops in view of continuos significant yield responses obtained at higher than the optimum levels to the crops even after more than two decades of continuos application of fertilizers. Based on the fitted quadratic response function on the mean yield for individual years obtained at the graded levels of NPK fertilizer application response maximizing and economic optimum doses for the crops in cereal based cropping systems at various locations have been worked out at a five yearly interval. The results, by and large, suggest adoption of economic fertilizer NPK doses for sustained crop yields at most of the locations. 

575. Velrasu, P and Singh, Parmatma. Fertilizer Use Pattern and its Impact on Crop Productivity - A case study of Erode District in Tamil Nadu. Fertilizer News, 1999. Vol.44 (10) 29-36 p.

bulletA study was conducted in three blocks of Erode district of Tamil Nadu in 1998. The results reveal that most of the farmers did not follow the fertilizer use recommendations. Besides that there was a wide disparity in fertilizer use among various categories of farmers and crops. Fertilizer use was high on irrigated areas compared to dryland areas. N fertilizer was excessively used and P and K fertilizers were under used. In the study period, only N fertilizer was found to have an explicit impact on crop productivity in majority of the crops. The paper emphasises all possible efforts to be made to ensure balanced fertilizer use by the farmers to make agriculture sustainable.  

576. Yadav, R.L; Pal, S.S.; Prasad, Kamta and Dwivedi, B.S; Role of Fertilizer in Cereal Production for Food Security and Balanced Diet. Fertilizer News, 1999. Vol.44 (12) 75-88p.

bulletBalanced diet constitute various food stuffs like cereals, pulses, nuts and oilseeds, vegetables, roots and tubers, fruits, milk and milk products, eggs, meat, fish and other animal foods, sugar and other carbohydrate for providing sufficient energy to lead a healthy physical and mental life. The major portion of balanced diet is confined to cereals, and the production of cereals is greatly influenced by fertilizers, as most of the Indian soils are low in fertility status. Any strategy of fertilizer management, which influences the cereal production vis--vis it nutritional quality will have direct bearing on balanced diet. In this paper, different nutrient management strategies to increase cereal production in India have been discussed. In this context, balanced fertilizer application based on IPNS on different agro-econological zones may prove to be a valuable weapon. Adoption of farming system approach throughout the country will be helpful in increasing production and economic profitability at small and marginal farm level. A holistic system based research strategy, highly productive and environmentally sustainable must be developed.

577. Zahid Hussain; Khan, Baitullah and Sarir Badshah. The Effect of NPK Levels on the Oil Production of a Sunflower Hybrid. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 1998. 14 (4) 269-276 p.  

bulletAn experiment on sunflower hybrid Peshawar-93 was laid out at Malakandher Farm NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, in RCB design during the Kharif season of 1995. The parameters studied were days to flowering, days to maturity, plant height at maturity, oil percentage and oil yield (kg/ha). Nitrogen significantly affected all the parameters except days to flowering and maturity. The effect of P was significant on all parameters. Interaction of N and P significantly affected days to flowering, days to maturity and oil yield. Nitrogen and potassium interaction affected significantly oil percentage and oil yield. The effect of NPK was also found significant on oil percentage and oil yield. Potassium significantly affected only the oil yield.

bulletSOIL ANALYSIS

578. M. Sharif; A.Qayyum and Khattak, J.K. Nutrients Status of Citrus Orchard Soils in Swat Valley. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 1998. 14 (3) 241-247 p.

bulletSixty soil samples were analyzed to determine macro and micronutrients status of thee representative citrus orchards of Swat Valley. Diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (DTPA) extractable Zn was found deficient in 5%, marginal in 35% and adequate in 60% soil samples. Mn and Cu were found adequate in 100% samples. Fe was found marginal in 23% and adequate in 76% samples. Ammonium bicarbonate Diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (AB-DTPA) extractable Zn was found deficient in 10%, marginal in 30% and adequate in 60% samples. Mn was found adequate in 100% samples. Cu was found adequate in 95% and deficient in 5% samples. Fe was adequate in 91% and deficient in 8% samples. Hot water soluble B (HWSB) was found deficient in 21%, marginal in 3% and adequate in 45% samples. AB-DTPA extractable P was medium in 21%, high in 15% and very high in 63% samples. K was low in 11%, medium in 41% and high in 46% samples. PH had negative significant correlation with DTPA and B-DTPA extractable Fe and AB-DTPA extractable Zn. Organic matter had positive non-significant correlation with DTPA and AB-DTPA extractable Zn and Mn. Lime had negative correlation with DTPA extractable Zn and Fe and AB-DTPA extractable Zn, Mn and Fe. AB-DTPA method was found more efficient than DTPA for the extraction of micronutrients.

bulletTECHNOLOGY

579. Khan, Farmanullah; Bhatti, A.U. and M. Afzal. Effect of Slope and Discharge on Flow Velocity in different Sandy Soils. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 1999 15 (1) 37-44 p.  

bulletThe relationship between slope, flow velocity and flow discharge was studied in laboratory flumes with fixed beds 2.5 m long and 48.5 mm wide. Slope ranged from 4 to 12 degrees and different sandy soils were used. The relationship showed considerable variation of flow velocity with particle diameter, but there was only a minor effect of slope on flow velocity as the derived slope exponent was very small. The proposed relationship can be used to predict flow velocity for variable slopes, flow discharge and soil particle diameters and therefore can contribute to development of physically based erosion models.

580. Naidu, L.G.K; Hunsigi, G. and Mohand, Raghu N.G. Soil Test Based Fertilizer Recommendation to Sugarcane, A Rational Approach. Fertilizer News, 1999 Vol.44(8) 29-33 & 35-36 p.

bulletThe major sugarcane growing tracts of Karnataka have wide variability in soils and climatic conditions. Cane yield and management responses were found greatly depends on soil types. In each agroclimatic (NARP) zone, sugarcane is grown on two to three soil types, which are distinctly differing, in physical chemical properties and fertility status. The prevailing fertilizer recommendations in different agroclimatic zones are general irrespective of soil types. In this paper an attempt has been made to show the distribution of different kinds of soils and their variations in their cane yield potential and management responses. A suggestion is made that fertilizer recommendations be based on soil types and cane yield targets to avoid mis-use of costly fertilizer input. Crop production technologies developed on well-defined soils can be transferred to other similar soil agro-environments occurring elsewhere. The present study amply demonstrated that soil survey information and soil maps could serve as tools for agrotechnology transfer.

581. Soodbiswas, N.; Basu, S. K.; Bhattacharyya, S.K. and Chaudhuri, A.K; Development of Boron and Zinc Containing Water Soluble Glass for Agricultural Application. Fertilizer News, 1999. Vol. 44 (8) 49-51 p.

bulletThis research note covered Choice of Host Glass and Glass Preparation, Solubility Determination, Water Contact pH, Results and Discussion.

582. Teng, S. Paul. Sustainable Agriculture: Industry Challenges, Agro Chemicals News in Brief, 1999. Vol. XXII, No.4, 5-19 p.

bulletSustainable agriculture must balance the needs for food security and environmental conservation. One of the greatest achievements of the twentieth century has been the efforts of the global agricultural research community in achieving food security that has fed millions, and served as the basis of economic transformation in many poor countries, especially in the Asian subcontinent (Conway, 1998; Teng, Fischer and Hossain, 1995).l This "Green Revolution" had averted the dire predictions of death and famine in Asia, in the years following the Second World War. Food production had instead outpaced population growth, mainly because of increased land area under irrigation and the use of high yielding varieties. Food availability per capita grew and prices fell. Although increased productivity had contributed to a lessened rate of deforestation, it still remained a major destabilizing factor in many tropical developing countries. The degradation of natural resources in developing countries was shown to be directly associated with poverty and rapid population growth. Where land was scarce and population pressures mounting, deforestation and the extension of cultivation to marginal lands appeared to be the only means available to poor households to relieve immediate food and income shortfalls.

bulletMICRONUTRIENT

583. Himayatullah and Khan, M. Qasim. Response of Irrigated Maize to Trace Elements in the Presence of N.P.K. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 1998. 14(2) 117-120 p.  

bulletStudies on production potential of maize in relation to trace element application along with basal dose of NPK was carried out at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agricultural, Faisalabad. Copper, Iron, Manganese and Zinc alone as well as in all possible combinations were applied as sulphates each at the rate of 5 kg per hectare. The experiment was performed in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications and a net plot size of 3.6 x 5.4 m. Combined application of Fe, Mn and Zn significantly increase number of cobs per plant, grains per cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield of maize showing thereby synergetic relationship with each other. By contrast, application of Cu alone or together with Fe, Mn and Zn decreased these components. A strong antagonistic.detrimental effect of Cu on Fe was observed.

584. Khan, M. Qasim and Muhammad Jamil. Effect of Trace Elements on Their Concentration in Soil and Wheat Leaves. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 1998. 14(2) 121-125 p.

bulletA field experiment was conducted to study the effect of trace elements (Zn, Cu and Fe) on their concentration in soil and leaf of wheat crop (Khyber-87 variety) during 1988-89. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design. Zinc, copper and iron were applied at the rate of 5.0, 5.0 and 2.5 kg/ha alone as well as in combination along with a basal dose of N, P205 and K20 (120, 90, 60 kg ha-1)

EDTA extractable Zn, Cu and Fe content of the soil increased significantly at boot stage of the wheat crop after harvesting only Zn and Fe content of the soil increased significantly. Leaf content of Zn, Cu and Fe were also increased significantly. Maximum contents of trace elements in the soil and leaf were found in treatment receiving NPK + Zn + Cu while minimum were found in the control treatment.

585. Kumar, Virendra; Govil, B.P. and Kaore, S.V; Nutrient Management Through IPNS in Farmers' Field IFFCO Experience, Fertilizer News, 1999. Vol.44 (12) 89-106 p.

bulletFood security will be the main issue of the next millennium. It would mean enhancing the food production from the shrinking land and other natural resources. Supply of nutrients integrating various sources and scientific application in farmer's field would be crucial in increasing foodgrain production. Laying out IPNS based demonstrations in farmers' field by extension workers would pave the way of actual adoption of IPNS based nutrient application by farmers. IFFCO has generated useful information on nutrient management in field crops through trials and demonstrations. Results of soil test based and sulphur nutrition trials are convincing. IPNS trials conducted by IFFCO and salient results in the form of yield, profit, B:C ratio and apparent balance sheet of nutrients are described in this paper. The results convincingly demonstrate benefits due to adoption of IPNS based technology over the normal Farmers' practice of nutrient application. The apparent nutrient balance sheet derived from 4 locations reveal a positive balance for phosphorus in most of the cases; nitrogen balance is manageable while situation in case of potash is alarming requiring attention. Case study of a village has also been described. Results clearly depict the benefits of efficient management of nutrients on crop yields in the village. FAO and IFFCO collaboration on IPNS has helped in bringing out a guide on the subject. Further collaboration will help in dissemination of the IPNS approach at farmers' level in India and other developing countries.

586. Murthy, I.Y.L.N and Singh, Mev. Micronutrient Studies in Sunflower and Sesame, Fertilizer News, 1999. Vol.44 (10) 45-51 p.

bulletSunflower and sesame are two important oilseed crops and together they contribute 1.89 million tons of oilseed production of India. Cultivated in different soil types they have showed significant responses to the Micronutrient application viz.Zn, Fe and B, which are assuming macro importance in improving crop yield and quality. Zn and Fe response in increasing sunflower and sesame yield varied from 25 to 50 kg/ha respectively depending on soil type. B application @ 0.2-0.5% to capitulum at rayfloret stage in sunflower was found adequate in increasing oilseed yield. Less than 16 mg/kg of Zn in leaf, <50 mg/kg Fe on dry matter basis and <8 mg/kg of B are considered critical limits for deficiency in sunflower crop.

bulletFERTILIZER MARKETING AND DEPLOYMENT

bulletBased on the recommendations of the study, GOP allowed the recommissioning of the SSP plants and the rehabilitation of the phosphate mines. NFC took the necessary actions to restart both the plants at Haripur and Jaranwala. The plants recommenced production (based on imported phosphate rock) in May/June 1999. It is expected that these plants will become profitable shortly. Currently, efforts are underway to rehabilitate the phosphate mines and to place both the SSP plants and mines.

bulletLIST OF SERIALS TO BE ABSTRACTED

The Pakistan Development Review, 1998. 37(4)

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 1998. 14(2)

Fertilizer News, 1999. 44(12)

Agro Chemicals News in Brief , 1999. XXII(4)

Fertilizer News, 1999. 44(8)

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 1998 14(3)

Fertilizer News, 1999. 44(12)

Fertilizer News, 1999. 44(8)

Fertilizer News, 1999. 44(10)

Fertilizer International, 1999. (366 - 367-369)

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 1998. 14(5)

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 1998. 14(4)

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 1999. 15(1-2)

VOLUME VII, NO. 1-4 January - December, 1999

bulletAUTHOR'S INDEX

A.Qayyum 578

Abdur Rashid 565

Ahmad, Nisar 550,587

Amanullah 565

Asif Sarawar 551

Bakht, Jehan 569

Bhatti, A.U 579

Biswas, B.C 558,559

Brar, M.S 572

Chauhan, R.P.S 564

Das, Soumitradas 558,559

Dwivedi, B.S 576

Ghulam Hussain 565

Ghulam Qadir 571

Govil, B.P 585

Gul Hassan 565

Gulzar Ahmad 567

Himayatullah 583

Hunsigi, G 580

Izhar Ali 570

Izharul Haq 569

Jamro, G. Hyder 567

Kakar, A. Khan 566

Kaore, S.V 585

Khan, Shah Nazar 567

Khan, A.Nawaz 552,553

Khan, Baitullah 577

Khan, Farmanullh 579

Khan, Jehangir 555

Khan, M. Qasim 583,584

Khattak, Fozia 570

Khattak, J.K 578

Khattak, S. Gul 569

Kumar, Virendra 585

M. Afzal 579

M. Sharif 578

Malik, Haq N 568

Maqbool Akhtar 568

Mohammad A. Rauf 555

Mohammad Zaman 569

Mohammad Zubair 555

Mohand, Raghu N.G 580

Muhammad Aslam 568

Muhammad Ishtiaq 571,570

Muhammad Jamil 584

Muhammad Sajid 571

Murthy, I.Y.L.N 586

N. Ahmad 552.553

N. Basu 581

Naidu, L.G.K 580

Pal, S.S 576

Parsad,Rajendra 556

Pasricha, N.S 572

Prasad, Kamta 576

Qureshi, A.Sarwar 551

Rahbar Alam 570

Rani, Archana 556

Sabir Gul 569

Said Rahman 567

Sarir Badshah 577

Sehgal, D.K 574

Sharma, S.H.K 559

Sher Muhammad 571

Sherin Khan 566

Singh, Parmatma 575

Singh, B.B 564

Singh, Mev 586

Singh, R.D 556,573

Singh, R.K 556,564

Singh, V.P 564

Taran,S.A 566

Teng, S. Paul 582

Tila Muhammad 550

Umid Ali Buriro 567

Vats. M.R 574

Velrasu P 575

Yadav, R.L 576

Z, Shah 557

Zafar Ali 555

Zahid Hussain 577

Zahid Shah 571

bulletFORWARD

bulletThe National Fertilizer Development Centre (NFDC) offers an annotated bibliographic information services on latest information on fertilizer and related plant nutrition development to all those engaged in research, production and promotion in fertilizers and plant nutrition.

bulletThis is the 12th issue of the bulletin on "Fertilizer Update" in which abstracts have been selected and presented into various categories. These abstracts have been selected from a wide range of journals, periodicals and other recent publications received by National Fertilizer Development Centre.

bulletHowever, recently due to financial constraints the wide variety of journals received in NFDC has been limited to few.

bulletTo obtain original copies of the abstracted articles listed in the "Fertilizer Update", readers are requested to contact directly NFDC indicating the call nos. of the abstract, its title and author (s).

bulletIn order to improve further this bibliographical service to our readers, we shall be grateful if errors, omissions, additions or any other changes could be brought to the notice of National Fertilizer Development Centre.

bulletTable of Contents

 Subject Page Number

AGRICULTURE 1-4

SOIL FERTILITY/FERTILIZER USE EFFICIENCY 4-10

SOIL ANALYSIS 10-11

TECHNOLOGY 11-12

MICRINUTRIENT 12-14

FERTILIZER MARKETING AND DEVELOPMENT 15

LIST OF SERIALS ABSTRACTED 15

AUTHOR'S INDEX 15

bulletFERTILIZER UPDATE

Compiled by

AHMAD ALI KHAN

NATIONAL FERTILIZER DEVELOPMENT CENTRE

Street, 1 Sector, H-8/1, Islamabad

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