Ahmad, Nisar and Tila Muhammad. Fertilizer, Plant Nutrient Management and
Self-reliance in Agriculture. The Pakistan Development Review, 1998. 37:4
Part II, 217-233 p.
importance of agriculture in the economy of Pakistan is well established. Agricultural
plays an important role both directly and indirectly in generating economic activity,
growth and development. Agriculture has strong backward and forward linkages and
is vital to the food security of the country. Fertilizers have played an important
role in Pakistan agriculture particularly in meeting the growing demand for food
grains, fiber, fuel and fodder. Fertilizer consumption has increased during the
last four decades to 2.6 million tones by 1997-98. The use level is, however,
not only sub optimal but also imbalanced. Better plant nutrient management is,
therefore, necessary for achieving self reliance in agriculture.
Asif Sarawar and Qureshi, Asad Sarwar. Genetic Response of Cotton (Gossypium
Hirsutm L.) to various irrigation regimes. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture,
1999. 15(1) 17-20 p.
study pertaining to the effect of different irrigation levels on the yield of
three strains of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars B496, B622 and B630
was conducted at the Experimental Farm of the Directorate of Crop Production and
Water Management, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Cotton was planted in
RCB (Factorial) design with four repeats. The vegetative, flowering and boll formation
growth stages of cotton were considered as 60, 70 and 50 days respectively. The
experiment consisted of six irrigation treatments with maximum of two irrigation's
during vegetative, three during flowering and one during boll formation stage.
The highest yield of seed cotton was found in six irrigation treatments as 2279
kg/ha for B496, 2297 kg/ha for B622, and 2141 kg/ha for B630. Test of difference
between treatments was done by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The yield
was found to be reduced significantly if water is not sufficiently available during
flowering and boll formation stages. However, excessive application of water during
vegetative and flowering stages did not increase the yield significantly. Cotton
yield was influenced significantly by irrigation levels whereas varieties were
not influenced significantly. Interaction between cultivars and irrigation levels
was also found to be non-significant. Water Use Efficiency (WUE) was found to
be the highest in one irrigation treatment and was the lowest in five irrigation
treatments. The yield Y (kg/ha)-Water X (mm) relationship was found as Y=2.08X
+ 757.75, Y=21.8X + 721.3 and Y= 1.64X + 947.80 for B496, B622, and B630 respectively.
The study suggested that water stress during the flowering and boll formation
stages must be avoided to get good yields.
Khan, Akhtar Nawaz; Qureshi; R.H. and N. Ahmad; Performance of Cotton Cultivars
as Affected by Types of Salinity I Growth and Yield. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture.
1998. 14(1) 67-71 p.
of two concentrations (150 and 250 me 1-1) of NaCl: CaCl2
salts of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3, ratios and salt mixture of Na2So4:
NaCl:Ca Cl2: MgCl2 ratio of 10:5:4:1 and NaCl alone on equivalent
basis on the fresh shoot and root yields of four cotton cultivars (NIAB 78, MNH
93, D9 and Ravi) were studied in plastic tubs containing nutrient solution. As
expected, NaCl salinity strongly inhibited the shoot growth. This inhibition was
partly overcome by adding Ca2+ in the root medium. It is noted that
Na+ : Ca2+ ratio of 3:1 has ameliorative effect due to low
toxicity of low concentration of Ca2+ on shoot and root growth. While
increases in the proportion of Ca2+ i.e. NaCl: CaCl2 ratios
of 1:1 and 1:3 had no further ameliorative effect on shot growth but decreased
the shoot growth at high salinity. Response of cultivars varied with addition
of Ca2+ to growth medium. NIAB 78 the tolerant cultivar improved its
adaptive mechanism (s) for salt tolerance by addition of Ca2+ to growth
medium than relatively sensitive cultivars.
Khan, Akhtar Nawaz; Qureshi, R.H. and N. Ahmad; Performance of Cotton Cultivars
as Affected by Types of Salinity II, Ionic Composition. Sarhad Journal
of Agriculture. 1998. 14(1) 73-77 p.
of types of salinity with relation to ions was studied on four cotton cultivars
(NIAB 78, MNH 93, D9 and Ravi) in nutrient solution. The growth medium was salinized
with different salts of NaCl : NaCl2 ratios of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 and
salt mixture of Na2So4 : NaCl : CaCl2 : MgCl2
ratio of 10:5:4:1 and NaCl alone on equivalent basis. It was noted that NIAB 78
had lowest shoot Na+ concentration as compared with other cultivars,
especially in treatment of NaCl alone and various salt mixtures. At low salinity
these differences were statistically significant in treatments with high Na+
: Ca2+ ratio. Cumulative mean of cultivars root showed that NIAB 78
the tolerant one retained more Na+ concentrations than MNH 93, D 9
and Ravi the relatively sensitive ones. To retain greater proportion of Na +
in roots by tolerant NIAB 78 than sensitive ones which could be one of the mechanism
in this case for high salt tolerance.
Ministry of Food Agriculture and Livestock. Crops Area Production by District
1995-96 to 1997-98. 1999. 213 p.
define the major cropping patterns of Pakistan, the district-wise crop data of
Pakistan were used. The major crops were grouped into Kharif and Rabi seasons.
The major Rabi crops considered were wheat, chickpea and rapseed. Kharif crops
included for the analysis were rice, cotton, sugarcane, maize, sorghum, millets
and groundnut. The district-wise area under each crop was used. The area of any
crop less than 1000 hectare was not included. To define the various cropping zones,
the major Rabi and Kharif crops (with maximum area coverage) were used. The predominant
cropping patterns identified were rice-wheat, cotton-wheat, coarse grain-wheat,
sugarcane-wheat and maize-wheat.
555. Mohammad Abdul
Rauf; Mohammad Zubair; Khan, Jehangir and Zafar Ali. Effect of Different Levels
of N.P.K. on the Yield and Growth of Strawberry Cv. 'Gorella'. Sarhad Journal
of Agriculture. 1998. 14(1) 27-28 p.
trail was conducted to investigate an optimum level of N.P.K. for strawberry Cv.
'Gorella' grown in containers. Four levels of N.P.K. i.e. 0,2,4 and 6 g/plant
were studied. The data showed that 4 g of N.P.K./plant gave maximum number of
flowers (29) per plant, maximum number of fruits/plant (19) and maximum number
of runners/plant (1.5) by 2 g N.P.K/Plant and 6 g N.P.K/plant. However larger
size fruits were observed in plants which received N.P.K at the rate of 6 g/plant.
Prasad, Rajendra; Singh, D.K; Singh, R.K: and Rani, Archana, Ammonia Volatilization
Loss in Rice-Wheat Cropping System and Ways to Minimize it. Fertilizer News,
1999. Vol.44(10) 53-56 p.
volatilization is an important nitrogen loss mechanism for the fertilizer nitrogen
applied to farm fields (1) Sudhakara and Prasad (9) reported a loss of 8.37% of
applied nitrogen by ammonia volatilization from a rice field when the rice crop
was at seedling stage i.e., soon after transplanting. Sarkar et al. (8)
reported a loss of 15-20% applied nitrogen when urea was broadcast in a wheat
field. Thus in rice-wheat cropping system about 10 to 20% of applied fertilizer
N is lost when urea is broadcast. Since a number of factors such as soil moisture
content, temperature, wind velocity etc. affect ammonia volatilization losses
under field conditions, the present laboratory study was planned to study the
effect of rates and methods of urea application on ammonia volatilization losses
under simulated field conditions for rice and wheat fields.
Z, Shah. Enhancing Efficiency of N Fertilizer through Nitrapyrin Vs Split
Application on Wheat Crop. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 1998. 14(2) 147-152
effects of nitrification inhibitor and the split application of fertilizer N on
the yield and N content of wheat were compared at the farmers' field in North
West Frontier Province, Pakistan. Three levels of N viz. 40, 80, and 120 kg N
ha-1 were applied to soil either as full dose at sowing or in two equal
split-half at sowing and half with second irrigation. Nitrapyrin was applied to
those treatments only receiving N as full dose at sowing. A control treatment
receiving no N was also included. The grain yield and shoot biomass of wheat were
greater in the inhibitor than in the split treatment, the differences however
varying with the level of N addition. The differences in yields between the inhibitor
and split treatments decreased with increasing N rates. The N concentration, total
N uptake, and recovery of applied N by wheat plants were significantly greater
in the inhibitor than in the split treatments at all levels of N. It was, however,
observed that the differences in N content of wheat between the inhibitor and
split treatments decreased with increasing level of N application. These results
indicated that the inhibitor treatment was relatively better than the split application
of N fertilizer in increasing the yield and N content of wheat.
FERTILITY/FERTILIZER USE EFFICIENCY
Biswas, B.C and Das, Soumitradas; Role of Fertilizer in Doubling Oilseed Productivity
in India. Fertilizer News, 1999. Vol.44(10) 23-26 p.
of fertilizer in improving foodgrains production is well documented. Oilseeds,
an energy rich group of crops, are mainly grown in energy starved rainfed conditions.
Presently, oilseed crops grown in 26 million hectares to produced about 25 million
tones of oilseeds removed nearly 3 million tones of major nutrients (NPK) alongwith
sizable amount of secondary (S etc.) and micronutrients (Zn, B, Mo etc.). Very
little amount of fertilizer nutrient is added in oilseed crops against a colossal
removal of 3 million tones per annum. This is a serious soil health hazarad, which
needs urgent attention of all concerned. The paper deals with the role that fertilizer
nutrient can play in doubling the oilseeds productivity in the country.
Biswas, B.C; Das, Soumitra and Sharma, S.H.K; Fertilizer Use in Non-traditional
Sector for Food Security and Balanced Diet. Fertilizer News, 1999. Vol.44
like inland fish culture, sericulture, horticultural crops, medicinal and aromatic
plants, rainfed farming, forage and fodder crops etc. can be considered as non-traditional
sector with respect to fertilizer use due to the very low fertilizer use in these
sectors. Achieving the food security and balanced diet targets for the ever-growing
population needs an increased production from all the sectors. Increasing the
production in turn requires that all these sectors be supplied with sufficient
quantities of nutrients from all the possible sources. The availability of organic
manures, biofertilizers etc. being limited, there is a great scope for increasing
the fertilizer use in these sectors. This paper deals with the potential of fertilizer
use in the sector and the role of plant nutrients in improving productivity and
product quality. The importance of the sector in food security and balanced diet
has also been highlighted. It also focuses on the constraints and their remedies
to increase the fertilizer use and productivity.
563. British Sulphur. Fertilizers for
their Future, A major Fertility Initiative in China. Fertilizer International,
1999. (369) 31-32 p.
fertilizers offer a more predictable supply of nutrition. However, they continue
to carry a significant price premium in comparison with conventional fertilizers.
Throughout the world, the quest is on to make controlled-release fertilizers a
more affordable source of N. This article, by Xu Xiucheng, Li Dipping, Wang Haobin
and Fan Xiushan, of Zhengzhou University of Technology, examines recent advance
564. Chauhan, R.P.S; Singh, B. B. Singh,
R.K. and Singh, V.P. Strategic Nutrient Management for Sustained Rice Production
in Sodic Soil. Fertilizer News, 1999. Vol.44(8) 13-26 p.
is the most suitable crop for sodic (alkali) soil for its being fairly tolerant
to sodicity and ameliorative effect on soil. On large areas of moderate sodic
soil (pH<9.5) rice mono-cropping with no amendment and its cultivation after
partial reclamation of barren zodiac lands (pH>9.5) during wet part of the
year is an usual practice. But the productivity and production of rice is very
poor due to the initial deficiency of nutrients (Ca, N, Zn) and tremendous loss
or fixation of applied nutrients. Strategic nutrient management is, therefore,
an integral part of reclamation and economic utilization of sodic soil. This paper
deals with the characteristics and nutrient status of typical sodic soil of Indogangetic
alluvial plains and different nutrient management options including integrated
nutrient management and use of coated urea materials for better and sustained
production of rice in sodic soils. The future research needs on the subject have
been also dealt with.
Ghulam Hussain; Amanullah; Gul Hassan and Abdur Rashid. Response of Sunflower
Cultivars to Different Nitrogen Levels under D.I. Khan Conditions. Sarhad
Journal of Agriculture, 1998. 14(5) 411-415 p.
experiments were conducted at ARI, D.I. Khan during Fall 1994-95 and 1995-96,
in order to figure out the most suitable dose of Nitrogen fertilizer for sunflower
cultivars. The experiments consisted of two cultivars viz., SF-187 (hybrid) and
SMT (open pollinated variety) assigned to the main plots and four nitrogen levels
kept into sub plots. The experiments were laid out in triplicated split plot in
Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The basal dose of the phosphorus and
potash was applied at 50 kg ha-1 each. The data were recorded on seed
yield (kg ha-1), days to flower initiation, completion and maturity
and the head size (cm). For seed yield, the data exhibited that regardless of
the N level, the cultivars SF-187 and SMT produced equal yields. Similarly, the
main effects for the N levels were found statistically significant during the
two years of study. During Fall 1994-95, the highest yield (1533 kg ha-1)
was produced by the fertilizer application at 125 kg ha-1. It was,
however, statistically at par with all other fertilizer treatments except the
un-fertilized check. Similar trend was recorded during the succeeding year of
study. Thus, it is suggested that in order to realize better yields of sunflower
it may be fertilized with 125 kg ha-1 alongwith a recommended dose
of phosphorus and potash.
566. Kakar, Abdullah Khan;
Sherin Khan and Taran, S. Asmatullah. Effect of Time and Different Methods
of Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on Maize (Zea Mays L.) Crop at Quetta. Sarhad
Journal of Agriculture, 1999. 15 (2) 88-91 p.
on the effect of methods of fertilizer application (broadcast, side placement,
inter row placement deep placement and liquid application) at different time period
(seeding stage, four leaves stage and eight leaves stage) on maize (Zea mays
L.) was carried out at Agricultural Research Institute Sariab, Quetta; Balochistan
during the crop season 1997. The experiment was laid out in RCB design with split
plot arrangement, replicated four times on a plot size of 4.5 x 5.25 m area. Plant
height and 1000-grain weight were significantly affected by fertilizer application
at eight leaves stage followed by four leaves stage and seeding stage. Significant
results were obtained with fertilizer application at four leaves stage with regard
to the leaf area and grain yield. Deep placement method of fertilizer application
had increased significantly the plant height, leaf area, 1000-grain weight and
grain yield kg/ha. It is concluded that N use efficiency were increased at four
leaves stage so we will recommend four leaves stage of maize for fertilizer application.
567. Khan, Shah Nazar; Said Rahman; Gulzar Ahmad;
Umid Ali Buriro and Ghulam Hyder Jamro. Predicting Nitrogen Requirements of
Sugarbeet Based on Different Levels of Irrigation. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture,
1998. 14 (4) 277-280 p.
experiment regarding the effect of different doses of nitrogen (viz., 00.50,100,150
and 200 kg/h) under three intervals of irrigation i.e. 7, 14 and 21 days was conducted
on sugarbeet varieties i.e. KaweTerma and KawePak 294 at Sugar Crops Research
Institute Mardan. The object of this experiment was to asses the effect of different
doses of N under various levels of irrigation on the yield and quality of sugarbeet.
The results conclusively proved that nitrogen fertilizer significantly increased
yield and yield contributing characters of sugarbeet. Conversely, high N dose
had an adverse effect on the quality parameters that is pol% of beet, pol% of
juice and purity percent. Therefore, it was concluded that 150 kg/ha N is the
optimum and economical dose for achieving maximum beet and sugar yield. Many of
the combined interactions displayed non-significant results. KaweTerma should
be cultivated with 150 kg N/ha under irrigation intervals of 7 and 14 days.
Maqbool Akhtar; Malik, Haq Nawaz and Muhammad Aslam. Maize Growth and Yield
as Affected by Various Nitrogen Level in Islamabad Capital Territory. Sarhad
Journal of Agriculture, 1998. 14 (4) 339-344 p.
experiment was conducted on farmer's field in the federal district of Islamabad
during the years 1994 and 1995 to compare the effectiveness of various Nitrogen
levels on the growth and productivity of maize. Maize crop was applied various
N levels of (i) O N, (ii) 50 kg N ha-1, (iii) 100 kg N ha-1,
and (iv) 150 kg N ha-1. Application of 100 kg N ha-1 produced
significantly tallest plants at maturity, more number of ears per plant (1.4),
maximum number of grains per ear (315.6) and maximum grain yield (4.93 t ha-1)
compared with 0.78 ears per plant, 80.3 grains per ear and 1.25 t ha-1
average grain yield with no nitrogen application. Application of 100 kg N ha-1
increased number of ears per plant by 62.00%, number of grains per ear by 292.8%,
and grain yield by 294.4% over control. Application of 100 kg N ha-1
proved to be the best dose to get maximum productivity of corn in Lapara soils
of Islamabad capital territory.
569. Mohammad Zaman;
Izharul Haq; Khattak, Sabir Gul and Bakht Jehan Phosphorus Requirement of Oil
Seed Brassica (Brassica Compestris L.). Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 1998.
14(2) 143-146 p.
experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar,
Pakistan, to study the effect of different levels of phosphorus on the yield and
yield components of oil seed brassica during 1992-93. Grain yield, biological
yield and harvest index was significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the application
of different levels of phosphorus. Phosphorus uptake at different stages of growth
(i.e. flowering, pod initiation, pod filling and harvest stages were non significant.
Application of 80-kg ha-1 phosphorus increased grain yield, biological yields
and harvest index when compared with control and other treatment.
Muhammad Ishtiaq; Khattak, Fozia; Rahbar Alam and Izhar Ali. Effect of Different
Doses of Nitrogen in Combination With a Constant Dose of Phosphorus of Ficus Macrophylla
Cuttings. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 1998. 14 (3) 215-217 p.
experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different doses of nitrogen
with constant doses of phosphorus on rubber plant cuttings. The different fertilizer
doses significantly affected the growth of the cuttings. Maximum number of branches
(8), number of leaves (139), number of roots (22), root length (34.33) and root
weight (2.63) were noted for the plants treated with 19 g N+16 g P. While maximum
plant height (33), stem thickness (0.49) and stem weight (29.31 g) were recorded
for plants treated with 28 g nitrogen combined with 16 g phosphorus.
Muhammad Sajid Muhammad Ishtiaq; Ghulam Qadir; Zahid Shah and Sher Muhammad. Effect
of Different Levels of Nitrogen on the Growth of Money Plant (Epipremnum aureum)
cuttings. Sarah Journal of Agriculture, 1999. 15 (2) 125-127 p.
on the effect of different levels of nitrogen on the growth of money plant (Epipermnum
aureum) cuttings, was initiated at Ornamental Nursery of Horticulture Department,
NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar during the year 1994. The cuttings were
planted in earthen pot of size (12-16 cm) containing sand, silt and clay media
in equal proportion. Urea was applied in two split doses as a source of nitrogen.
The data recorded, revealed that treatments have significant effects on all the
growth parameters. The maximum stem length (34.68 cm), stem thickness (2.20 cm),
number of leaves (13.33), root length (21.30 cm), root volume (3.12 ml) were recorded.
On the basis of the experiment conducted, application of 4 g of urea per pot increased
the performance of money plant (E.aureum) upto maximum growth and hence
recommended as the best dose for the money plant from cuttings.
Pasricha, N.S:and Brar, M.S: Role of Mineral Fertilizers to Increase Wheat
Production. Fertilizer News, 1999. Vol.44 (10) 39-43 p.
of cereals, wheat commands a very respectable position with respect to area, as
well as productivity. It is mainly grown in Indo-Gangetic plains of the country.
Although productivity of wheat greatly varies between different regions, it is
highest in northern part of Indo-Gangetic plains (Punjab) and lowest in eastern
part (Bihar). There is a lot of gap between average wheat production in different
regions and the yields of experimental trials conducted either at farmers' fields
or at research stations. Simply by filling these gaps with the use of enhanced
and balanced fertilization wheat production can be increased to the extent of
11.0 million tones annually. The results of the Maximum Yield Research Trials
indicated that Punjab and Haryana alone have the ability to produce 10 million
tones more wheat with higher and balanced use of fertilizers, green manuring and
optimum plant population. The results of permanent research trial conducted at
Punjab Agricultural University indicated that even with the use of all other factors
such as high yielding varieties, irrigation facilities, control of insect pest
and disease, the wheat productivity could have remained at the level of 1.0 tonne
per hectare. However, with the use of fertilizers as a single factor, the productivity
has increased to nearly 5 tonne per hectare. The paper focuses on the importance
of mineral fertilizer in increasing the wheat production.
574. Vats, M.R. and Sehgal, D.K. Fertilizer
Application for Sustainable Yield in Long Term Experiments. Fertilizer News,
1999. Vol.44 (8) 43-46 p.
fertilization of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium has shown to maintain the
yield stability of crops. At a number of locations the results from long term
fertilizer experiments have shown that for most of the crops taken in cereals
based cropping systems the yields obtained at one and a half times the optimum
rates of fertilizer application were significantly higher than those under optimum
(100 percent NPK-soil test based) levels. The yield gaps were observed to be quite
large necessitating a fresh look at fertilizer recommendations to crops in view
of continuos significant yield responses obtained at higher than the optimum levels
to the crops even after more than two decades of continuos application of fertilizers.
Based on the fitted quadratic response function on the mean yield for individual
years obtained at the graded levels of NPK fertilizer application response maximizing
and economic optimum doses for the crops in cereal based cropping systems at various
locations have been worked out at a five yearly interval. The results, by and
large, suggest adoption of economic fertilizer NPK doses for sustained crop yields
at most of the locations.
575. Velrasu, P
and Singh, Parmatma. Fertilizer Use Pattern and its Impact on Crop Productivity
- A case study of Erode District in Tamil Nadu. Fertilizer News, 1999. Vol.44
(10) 29-36 p.
study was conducted in three blocks of Erode district of Tamil Nadu in 1998. The
results reveal that most of the farmers did not follow the fertilizer use recommendations.
Besides that there was a wide disparity in fertilizer use among various categories
of farmers and crops. Fertilizer use was high on irrigated areas compared to dryland
areas. N fertilizer was excessively used and P and K fertilizers were under used.
In the study period, only N fertilizer was found to have an explicit impact on
crop productivity in majority of the crops. The paper emphasises all possible
efforts to be made to ensure balanced fertilizer use by the farmers to make agriculture
576. Yadav, R.L; Pal, S.S.;
Prasad, Kamta and Dwivedi, B.S; Role of Fertilizer in Cereal Production for
Food Security and Balanced Diet. Fertilizer News, 1999. Vol.44 (12) 75-88p.
diet constitute various food stuffs like cereals, pulses, nuts and oilseeds, vegetables,
roots and tubers, fruits, milk and milk products, eggs, meat, fish and other animal
foods, sugar and other carbohydrate for providing sufficient energy to lead a
healthy physical and mental life. The major portion of balanced diet is confined
to cereals, and the production of cereals is greatly influenced by fertilizers,
as most of the Indian soils are low in fertility status. Any strategy of fertilizer
management, which influences the cereal production vis-à-vis it nutritional quality
will have direct bearing on balanced diet. In this paper, different nutrient management
strategies to increase cereal production in India have been discussed. In this
context, balanced fertilizer application based on IPNS on different agro-econological
zones may prove to be a valuable weapon. Adoption of farming system approach throughout
the country will be helpful in increasing production and economic profitability
at small and marginal farm level. A holistic system based research strategy, highly
productive and environmentally sustainable must be developed.
Zahid Hussain; Khan, Baitullah and Sarir Badshah. The Effect of NPK Levels
on the Oil Production of a Sunflower Hybrid. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture,
1998. 14 (4) 269-276 p.
experiment on sunflower hybrid Peshawar-93 was laid out at Malakandher Farm NWFP
Agricultural University Peshawar, in RCB design during the Kharif season of 1995.
The parameters studied were days to flowering, days to maturity, plant height
at maturity, oil percentage and oil yield (kg/ha). Nitrogen significantly affected
all the parameters except days to flowering and maturity. The effect of P was
significant on all parameters. Interaction of N and P significantly affected days
to flowering, days to maturity and oil yield. Nitrogen and potassium interaction
affected significantly oil percentage and oil yield. The effect of NPK was also
found significant on oil percentage and oil yield. Potassium significantly affected
only the oil yield.
M. Sharif; A.Qayyum and Khattak, J.K. Nutrients Status of Citrus Orchard Soils
in Swat Valley. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 1998. 14 (3) 241-247 p.
soil samples were analyzed to determine macro and micronutrients status of thee
representative citrus orchards of Swat Valley. Diethylene triamine penta acetic
acid (DTPA) extractable Zn was found deficient in 5%, marginal in 35% and adequate
in 60% soil samples. Mn and Cu were found adequate in 100% samples. Fe was found
marginal in 23% and adequate in 76% samples. Ammonium bicarbonate Diethylene triamine
penta acetic acid (AB-DTPA) extractable Zn was found deficient in 10%, marginal
in 30% and adequate in 60% samples. Mn was found adequate in 100% samples. Cu
was found adequate in 95% and deficient in 5% samples. Fe was adequate in 91%
and deficient in 8% samples. Hot water soluble B (HWSB) was found deficient in
21%, marginal in 3% and adequate in 45% samples. AB-DTPA extractable P was medium
in 21%, high in 15% and very high in 63% samples. K was low in 11%, medium in
41% and high in 46% samples. PH had negative significant correlation with DTPA
and B-DTPA extractable Fe and AB-DTPA extractable Zn. Organic matter had positive
non-significant correlation with DTPA and AB-DTPA extractable Zn and Mn. Lime
had negative correlation with DTPA extractable Zn and Fe and AB-DTPA extractable
Zn, Mn and Fe. AB-DTPA method was found more efficient than DTPA for the extraction
579. Khan, Farmanullah; Bhatti, A.U. and M. Afzal. Effect
of Slope and Discharge on Flow Velocity in different Sandy Soils. Sarhad Journal
of Agriculture, 1999 15 (1) 37-44 p.
relationship between slope, flow velocity and flow discharge was studied in laboratory
flumes with fixed beds 2.5 m long and 48.5 mm wide. Slope ranged from 4 to 12
degrees and different sandy soils were used. The relationship showed considerable
variation of flow velocity with particle diameter, but there was only a minor
effect of slope on flow velocity as the derived slope exponent was very small.
The proposed relationship can be used to predict flow velocity for variable slopes,
flow discharge and soil particle diameters and therefore can contribute to development
of physically based erosion models.
L.G.K; Hunsigi, G. and Mohand, Raghu N.G. Soil Test Based Fertilizer Recommendation
to Sugarcane, A Rational Approach. Fertilizer News, 1999 Vol.44(8) 29-33 &
major sugarcane growing tracts of Karnataka have wide variability in soils and
climatic conditions. Cane yield and management responses were found greatly depends
on soil types. In each agroclimatic (NARP) zone, sugarcane is grown on two to
three soil types, which are distinctly differing, in physical chemical properties
and fertility status. The prevailing fertilizer recommendations in different agroclimatic
zones are general irrespective of soil types. In this paper an attempt has been
made to show the distribution of different kinds of soils and their variations
in their cane yield potential and management responses. A suggestion is made that
fertilizer recommendations be based on soil types and cane yield targets to avoid
mis-use of costly fertilizer input. Crop production technologies developed on
well-defined soils can be transferred to other similar soil agro-environments
occurring elsewhere. The present study amply demonstrated that soil survey information
and soil maps could serve as tools for agrotechnology transfer.
Soodbiswas, N.; Basu, S. K.; Bhattacharyya, S.K. and Chaudhuri, A.K; Development
of Boron and Zinc Containing Water Soluble Glass for Agricultural Application.
Fertilizer News, 1999. Vol. 44 (8) 49-51 p.
research note covered Choice of Host Glass and Glass Preparation, Solubility Determination,
Water Contact pH, Results and Discussion.
Teng, S. Paul. Sustainable Agriculture: Industry Challenges, Agro Chemicals
News in Brief, 1999. Vol. XXII, No.4, 5-19 p.
agriculture must balance the needs for food security and environmental conservation.
One of the greatest achievements of the twentieth century has been the efforts
of the global agricultural research community in achieving food security that
has fed millions, and served as the basis of economic transformation in many poor
countries, especially in the Asian subcontinent (Conway, 1998; Teng, Fischer and
Hossain, 1995).l This "Green Revolution" had averted the dire predictions
of death and famine in Asia, in the years following the Second World War. Food
production had instead outpaced population growth, mainly because of increased
land area under irrigation and the use of high yielding varieties. Food availability
per capita grew and prices fell. Although increased productivity had contributed
to a lessened rate of deforestation, it still remained a major destabilizing factor
in many tropical developing countries. The degradation of natural resources in
developing countries was shown to be directly associated with poverty and rapid
population growth. Where land was scarce and population pressures mounting, deforestation
and the extension of cultivation to marginal lands appeared to be the only means
available to poor households to relieve immediate food and income shortfalls.
583. Himayatullah and Khan, M. Qasim. Response
of Irrigated Maize to Trace Elements in the Presence of N.P.K. Sarhad Journal
of Agriculture, 1998. 14(2) 117-120 p.
on production potential of maize in relation to trace element application along
with basal dose of NPK was carried out at the Agronomic Research Area, University
of Agricultural, Faisalabad. Copper, Iron, Manganese and Zinc alone as well as
in all possible combinations were applied as sulphates each at the rate of 5 kg
per hectare. The experiment was performed in a Randomized Complete Block Design
with three replications and a net plot size of 3.6 x 5.4 m. Combined application
of Fe, Mn and Zn significantly increase number of cobs per plant, grains per cob,
1000-grain weight and grain yield of maize showing thereby synergetic relationship
with each other. By contrast, application of Cu alone or together with Fe, Mn
and Zn decreased these components. A strong antagonistic.detrimental effect of
Cu on Fe was observed.
Khan, M. Qasim and Muhammad Jamil. Effect of Trace Elements on Their Concentration
in Soil and Wheat Leaves. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 1998. 14(2) 121-125
field experiment was conducted to study the effect of trace elements (Zn, Cu and
Fe) on their concentration in soil and leaf of wheat crop (Khyber-87 variety)
during 1988-89. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design.
Zinc, copper and iron were applied at the rate of 5.0, 5.0 and 2.5 kg/ha alone
as well as in combination along with a basal dose of N, P205
and K20 (120, 90, 60 kg ha-1)
extractable Zn, Cu and Fe content of the soil increased significantly at boot
stage of the wheat crop after harvesting only Zn and Fe content of the soil increased
significantly. Leaf content of Zn, Cu and Fe were also increased significantly.
Maximum contents of trace elements in the soil and leaf were found in treatment
receiving NPK + Zn + Cu while minimum were found in the control treatment.
585. Kumar, Virendra; Govil, B.P. and Kaore, S.V;
Nutrient Management Through IPNS in Farmers' Field IFFCO Experience, Fertilizer
News, 1999. Vol.44 (12) 89-106 p.
security will be the main issue of the next millennium. It would mean enhancing
the food production from the shrinking land and other natural resources. Supply
of nutrients integrating various sources and scientific application in farmer's
field would be crucial in increasing foodgrain production. Laying out IPNS based
demonstrations in farmers' field by extension workers would pave the way of actual
adoption of IPNS based nutrient application by farmers. IFFCO has generated useful
information on nutrient management in field crops through trials and demonstrations.
Results of soil test based and sulphur nutrition trials are convincing. IPNS trials
conducted by IFFCO and salient results in the form of yield, profit, B:C ratio
and apparent balance sheet of nutrients are described in this paper. The results
convincingly demonstrate benefits due to adoption of IPNS based technology over
the normal Farmers' practice of nutrient application. The apparent nutrient balance
sheet derived from 4 locations reveal a positive balance for phosphorus in most
of the cases; nitrogen balance is manageable while situation in case of potash
is alarming requiring attention. Case study of a village has also been described.
Results clearly depict the benefits of efficient management of nutrients on crop
yields in the village. FAO and IFFCO collaboration on IPNS has helped in bringing
out a guide on the subject. Further collaboration will help in dissemination of
the IPNS approach at farmers' level in India and other developing countries.
586. Murthy, I.Y.L.N and Singh, Mev. Micronutrient
Studies in Sunflower and Sesame, Fertilizer News, 1999. Vol.44 (10) 45-51
and sesame are two important oilseed crops and together they contribute 1.89 million
tons of oilseed production of India. Cultivated in different soil types they have
showed significant responses to the Micronutrient application viz.Zn, Fe and B,
which are assuming macro importance in improving crop yield and quality. Zn and
Fe response in increasing sunflower and sesame yield varied from 25 to 50 kg/ha
respectively depending on soil type. B application @ 0.2-0.5% to capitulum at
rayfloret stage in sunflower was found adequate in increasing oilseed yield. Less
than 16 mg/kg of Zn in leaf, <50 mg/kg Fe on dry matter basis and <8 mg/kg
of B are considered critical limits for deficiency in sunflower crop.
MARKETING AND DEPLOYMENT
on the recommendations of the study, GOP allowed the recommissioning of the SSP
plants and the rehabilitation of the phosphate mines. NFC took the necessary actions
to restart both the plants at Haripur and Jaranwala. The plants recommenced production
(based on imported phosphate rock) in May/June 1999. It is expected that these
plants will become profitable shortly. Currently, efforts are underway to rehabilitate
the phosphate mines and to place both the SSP plants and mines.
OF SERIALS TO BE ABSTRACTED
The Pakistan Development Review, 1998. 37(4)
Journal of Agriculture, 1998. 14(2)
Fertilizer News, 1999.
Agro Chemicals News in Brief , 1999. XXII(4)
News, 1999. 44(8)
Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 1998 14(3)
Fertilizer News, 1999. 44(12)
News, 1999. 44(8)
Fertilizer News, 1999. 44(10)
International, 1999. (366 - 367-369)
Sarhad Journal of
Agriculture, 1998. 14(5)
Sarhad Journal of Agriculture,
Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 1999. 15(1-2)
VOLUME VII, NO. 1-4 January - December, 1999
Abdur Rashid 565
Asif Sarawar 551
Bhatti, A.U 579
Biswas, B.C 558,559
Chauhan, R.P.S 564
Das, Soumitradas 558,559
Ghulam Hussain 565
Ghulam Qadir 571
Gul Hassan 565
Hunsigi, G 580
Izharul Haq 569
G. Hyder 567
Kakar, A. Khan 566
Kaore, S.V 585
Shah Nazar 567
Khan, A.Nawaz 552,553
Khan, Baitullah 577
Khan, Jehangir 555
Khan, M. Qasim 583,584
Khattak, J.K 578
Khattak, S. Gul 569
M. Afzal 579
M. Sharif 578
Haq N 568
Maqbool Akhtar 568
Mohammad A. Rauf 555
Mohammad Zubair 555
Mohand, Raghu N.G 580
Muhammad Ishtiaq 571,570
Muhammad Jamil 584
Murthy, I.Y.L.N 586
N. Ahmad 552.553
Naidu, L.G.K 580
Pal, S.S 576
Pasricha, N.S 572
Qureshi, A.Sarwar 551
Rahbar Alam 570
Sabir Gul 569
Said Rahman 567
Sehgal, D.K 574
Sharma, S.H.K 559
Sherin Khan 566
Singh, Parmatma 575
Singh, Mev 586
Singh, R.K 556,564
Singh, V.P 564
Teng, S. Paul 582
Umid Ali Buriro 567
Vats. M.R 574
Yadav, R.L 576
Zafar Ali 555
Zahid Shah 571
National Fertilizer Development Centre (NFDC) offers an annotated bibliographic
information services on latest information on fertilizer and related plant nutrition
development to all those engaged in research, production and promotion in fertilizers
and plant nutrition.
is the 12th issue of the bulletin on "Fertilizer Update"
in which abstracts have been selected and presented into various categories. These
abstracts have been selected from a wide range of journals, periodicals and other
recent publications received by National Fertilizer Development Centre.
recently due to financial constraints the wide variety of journals received in
NFDC has been limited to few.
obtain original copies of the abstracted articles listed in the "Fertilizer
Update", readers are requested to contact directly NFDC indicating the call
nos. of the abstract, its title and author (s).
order to improve further this bibliographical service to our readers, we shall
be grateful if errors, omissions, additions or any other changes could be brought
to the notice of National Fertilizer Development Centre.
FERTILITY/FERTILIZER USE EFFICIENCY 4-10
FERTILIZER MARKETING AND DEVELOPMENT 15
LIST OF SERIALS ABSTRACTED 15
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